Reverend William Howard Bishop: Toward an Understanding of His Charism as Founder of the Glenmary Home Missioners
By Father Dan Dorsey
(Numbered notes, indicated in parentheses, are listed at the end of this Web page.)
I. The Theological Concept of the Charism of a Founder
On June 29, 1971, Pope Paul VI promulgated “Evangelica Testificatio” and in words that were both fraternal and reverential he reflected on the mystery of the vocation to religious life. He exhorted all religious “to a more total surrender to the Holy Spirit”(1) and taught that only through such an openness and surrender:
Will you be able to reawaken hearts to truth and to divine love in accordance with charisms of your founders who were raised up by God within His church.(2)
In this document Paul VI had clarified the teachings of the Second Vatican Council in “Lumen Gentium” and “Perfectae Caritatis”: true renewal in religious communities should be founded on the Holy Spirit who manifests Himself according to the unique charisms of the founders of communities.
However, a problem remained after the papal exhortation was published. What did Paul VI mean by “charisms of your founders”? “Evangelica Testificatio” had introduced a new and seemingly important term into the theological discussion, but had not attempted to define the phrase.
If we are to accomplish the task set before us, namely to deepen our understanding of the charism of Father Bishop, then it is incumbent on us to first refine our understanding of the nebulous term “charism of a founder.” This first chapter, therefore, is dedicated to that end. We will begin by tracing the development of the word “charism” in the Catholic tradition. Next we will discuss the specific charism of founding a religious community. Finally, we will summarize our findings and establish a working definition of “charism of a founder.”
The Term “Charism” in Scripture
The word “charism” is derived from the Greek meaning favor or gift(3) and is thought to be an expression first used by St. Paul.(4) This belief is primarily based on the fact that aside from 1 Peter 4:10 “charism” occurs exclusively in the Pauline corpus.(5) Because of its limited usage, and also because we can learn almost nothing from material outside the New Testament, it is difficult to define the term with precision.(6) The context of “charism” is virtually our only guide to interpretation.(7) Three other important New Testament words evolve from its stem, char: “grace” (charis); “joy” (chara) “thanks” (eucharistia).(8)
“Charism” in the Old Testament
Although “charism” is a New Testament expression, it nonetheless has its roots in one of the dominant themes of the Old Testament, “creatio continua.”(9) Yahweh, who is the author of creation, continues to bestow His gifts upon His Chosen People.(10) For their part, the Israelites must never forget that Yahweh, and He alone, is the source of all blessings. The lesson is clear: divine gifts must never be separated from the Divine.(11)
The Old Testament also narrates the stories of individuals in whom the presence of the Spirit of God manifested itself. The extraordinary gifts that were bestowed ranged from prophetic discernment(12) to raptures(13) and mysterious transports.(14) Among the recipients of the special gifts were some of Israel’s greatest heroes;(15) but there were also many lesser know individuals(16) who were empowered by the Spirit of Yahweh to perform specific tasks and upon their completion returned to a life of anonymity.(17)
“Charism” in St. Paul
The word “charism” occurs sixteen times in the Pauline corpus. Xavier Leon-Dufour suggests two senses by which to interpret St. Paul’s use of the term: the broad sense and the technical sense.(18) Leon-Dufour describes the broad interpretation of “charism” as “the free gifts given by God which are generally spiritual gifts (e.g. the Holy Spirit, salvation in Jesus Christ, eternal life)”(19) while in the narrow interpretation the Pauline expression is a “free gift appropriated by one person or another which allows him to accomplish through the Spirit activities suited to the community’s good.(20) It is the latter interpretation, the technical sense of the word, that we will employ in our attempt to deepen our understanding of “charism of a founder.”
Using the narrow interpretation, we notice that St. Paul specifically labels the gifts from God as “spiritual” and he attributes them to the person of the Holy Spirit.(21) This is consistent with the Pauline conception of the Christian life which he believes to be entirely “pneumatic” or “spiritual.”(22)
In explaining the gifts of the Holy Spirit St. Paul compares them with the different functions of the human body and at the same time establishes a hierarchy among the gifts.(23) While accepting the extraordinary gifts such as miracles and gifts of tongues, St. Paul puts a higher value on those gifts which can explain and proclaim God’s message to men.(24) Thus, the gift of prophecy, by which a person can speak for edification, encouragement, and consolation, is preferred to the gift of tongues.(25) St. Paul’s guiding principle is that the gifts which build up and strengthen the whole body are to be preferred to the more personal gifts. Therefore, he puts the apostles first, followed by prophets and teachers. Following these three are the more extraordinary gifts.(26)
St. Paul’s reason for listing the gifts of the Spirit according to a hierarchy is to preserve order and harmony in the community. All gifts, however, are subject to genuine charity and are counted as worthless without love, the greatest of charisms.(27)
In all of this we can clearly see that St. Paul is trying to dislodge the early Church’s understanding of “charism” from the realm of sensational phenomena and miracles and place “charism” in the ordered life of the community.(28) By virtue of their baptism all believers share in the “gifts of the Spirit”: “To each is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the common good.”(29) If all believers are recipients of spiritual gifts, then all are responsible for the “building up of the community” according to their unique giftedness.(30)
This relation of charism to the community is at the heart of the Pauline understanding of the word. He continually points out that all charisms are the concrete manifestations of the love of Christ and that all serve to strengthen His Body.(31) Although the gifts of the Spirit are many, there exists a profound unity based on the one Spirit which is the source of all gifts.(32) It is manifest that the Pauline understanding of “charism” is that of a spiritual blessing which is given primarily for the sake of the Church’s mission.(33)
In the pastoral letters of the New Testament there is a shift in the Church’s understanding of “charism.”(34) The emphasis is focused on the relationship between “office” and “charism” at the expense of St. Paul’s belief that the gifts of the Spirit are granted to all Christians.(35) This shift marks the beginning of a period where “charism” would be associated with extraordinary phenomena (e.g. glossolalia) or with office.
Based on the preceding discussion we can now enumerate some of the important characteristics of “charism”: 1. Charisms are gifts of the Holy Spirit; 2. The gifts of the Holy Spirit play a vital role in the “constitution and daily life of the Church”;(36) 3. All believers by virtue of their baptism are recipients of charisms; 4. Charisms are given to individuals primarily for the building up of the Body of Christ.
We could define “charism,” therefore, as “the free gift(s) of the Holy Spirit intended for the building up of the Church, the Body of Christ.”(37)
The Term “Charism” in Tradition
For the purpose of this study the Patristic era offers us little by way of a further development of the theology of “charism.” Ignoring the Pauline insights the Fathers associated charisms almost exclusively with the miraculous or the extraordinary. They believed that the gifts of the Spirit belonged to the golden age of the Apostolic Church-when charisms were so abundant-because the Church itself was so fervent. Many of the Fathers in an effort to explain the disappearance of charisms concluded that they were required only for the foundation of the Church.(38) By the end of the sixth century St. Gregory the Great reflected:
The signs of power are withdrawn from the holy Church. For prophecy no longer shines, the grace of healing has been withdrawn, the virtue of long abstinences has been diminished, the words of doctrine are silent, the miraculous prodigies are taken away.(39)
St. Thomas Aquinas in the 13th Century is the next person to make an important contribution to the theological progress of the doctrine of “charism.” St Thomas described charisms as “gratiae gratis datae” and integrated them with the main theme of the Summa Theologica.(40) In doing this St. Thomas gives to the doctrine of “charism” a place of central importance by situating it at the core of his treatise on individual morality. By referring to charisms by a new name, “gratiae gratis datae,” St. Thomas also distinguishes charisms from actual grace and sanctifying grace. A third contribution of St. Thomas is that he placed an accent on the apologetic or doctrinal aspects of charisms, that is, their usefulness for spreading and confirming the faith.(41)
Theology in the post-Tridentine era continued to reflect on the Thomistic synthesis but it never gained wide acceptance.(42) Increasingly Roman Catholic theology relegated the Thomistic concept of “gratiae gratis datae” to the fringes of its thought.(43) Rene Laurentin believes that this was in part due to the fact that charisms were seen “as a threat to the institution, that they might confront the established authority with an authority which was beyond its control.”(44)
More than 600 years elapsed before reflection on the theology of “charism” was re-introduced into the mainstream of Roman Catholic theology.(45) Cardinal Suenens alluded to this regrettable lacuna in one of the famous speeches of the Second Vatican Council:
The remarks made about the charisms of the Christian people are so few that one could get the impression that charisms are nothing more than a peripheral unessential phenomenon in the life of the Church. Now the vital importance of these charisms for the building up of the Mystical Body must be presented with greater clarity and consequently at greater length. What is to be completely avoided is the appearance that the historical structure of the Church seems to be an administrative apparatus with no intimate connection with the charismatic gifts of the Holy Spirit which are spread throughout the life of the Church.(46)
Suenens had reiterated two of the basic Pauline characteristics of charisms: they play a vital role in the life of the Church and are given for the building up of the Body of Christ.
Pope Pius XII’s encyclical, “Mystici Corporis,” had paved the way for the Second Vatican Council by describing the structure of the Body of Christ, the Church, as both hieratic and charismatic.(47) Although the encyclical still portrayed charisms as “marvelous gifts” (rare and marginal phenomena) it nonetheless represented a step forward.(48)
“Mystici Corporis” proved to be the necessary stepping stone for the Fathers of Vatican II. Using the image of the Church as the Body of Christ, the Fathers described charisms as special graces distributed among the faithful of every rank to make them fit and ready for various tasks required in the renewal and building up of the Church.(49) These “special graces” include charisms that are both remarkable and those that are more simple and widely diffused.(50)
The diffusion of the gifts of the Spirit constitutes one of the main themes of the Council. All members of the community, the People of God, share in the manifest gifts of the Spirit: “Thus, every lay person, through those gifts given to him, is at once the witness and living instrument of the mission of the Church.”(51)
A second important theme of the Fathers with regard to the theology of “charism” is that charisms are actually the manifestations of the Holy Spirit acting in and through the Christian for the whole Church and for the world. The Holy Spirit distributes its gifts for the welfare of the entire Body.(52) These charisms instill in the Church the same motivation which inspired Christ Himself.(53) Charisms might be understood, therefore, as the materials that the Spirit uses to construct or “to make” the Church.(54)
The Second Vatican Council while speaking about charisms in general did not treat, nor attempt to define, the specific charism of founding a religious community.(55) The Fathers situated religious life within the Body of Christ(56) and called upon religious communities to renew themselves under the impulse of the Holy Spirit and with the guidance of the Church.(57) The closest the Council came to dealing with the “charism of a founder” is when it described the “mirabilis varietas” of religious communities(58) pointing out that the “variety of gifts” that they possess are intended to contribute to the building up of the One Body. In a further elaboration the Fathers mention that the “manifold gifts” which have been bestowed on religious communities will “vary according to the grace which is given to them.”(59)
It is evident from our discussion that the insights of St. Paul into the theology of “charism” were not developed and often ignored in ensuing centuries. St. Thomas Aquinas simply rediscovered the Pauline concept of the nature of the charisms of the Spirit. By situating charisms, “gratiae gratis datae,” at the heart of his treatise on individual morality, he manifests a clear recognition of the fact that charisms pertain essentially to the structure of the Church. The significant contributions of the Second Vatican Council were that it re-introduced the Pauline understanding of “charism” into the mainstream of theological reflection and it awakened an awareness in the Church that religious life is a charism.
We might, therefore, summarize our discussion of St. Paul and of tradition by saying that the Church by its very nature is charismatic; it is born of the Spirit and its life springs from and is dependent on the gifts of the Spirit. All of the members of the Church are beneficiaries of the gifts of the Spirit and all are called to use these gifts for the common good, the building up of the Body. The charisms of the Spirit are diverse and unique and constantly appear in new forms and are continually rediscovered. They respond to the “signs of the times” giving witness to the life of the Spirit in our midst. One of the charisms that has been evident throughout the history of the Church is that of religious life.
Equipped with a broadened and deepened understanding of the word “charism” we can now more intelligently treat the specific question: What is meant by the term “charism of a founder?”
The Term “Charism of a Founder”
We might begin our inquiry into the meaning of the term “charism of a founder” by noting a difference between “gifts of the Holy Spirit” and charisms. In our presentation thus far we have used the expressions interchangeably. This lack of clarity is mainly due to the Pauline use of “charism.” It was pointed out earlier that it is difficult to interpret St. Paul’s use of the term with precision.
“Gifts of the Holy Spirit” have a kind of habitual character, that is, permanent qualities of the soul which are always ready to respond to the impulses of the Holy Spirit. But this “habitual” character does not seem to be proper to all the charisms, some of which represent a “here and now” response to the movement of the Holy Spirit. The “charism” of a founder of a religious community appears to be like an instrument of which God makes use for a particular purpose in the Church and in humanity. “Charism,” therefore, according to the purpose of this study, should be interpreted as a particularized gift(s) of the Holy Spirit bestowed for a specific intent in the Church and in humanity.(60)
In the history of all foundations of religious congregations, this “particularized gift of the Holy Spirit” (the charism of the founder) seems to be constituted by three essential elements: “1) The theological vision or faith-vision of the founder; 2) perception of and sensitivity to real human needs; 3) charity, that is, the supernatural dynamism which impels to action.”(61) Since “real human needs” are culturally and historically conditioned, and because “the supernatural dynamism” is impossible to “grasp, define, locate or describe,” it is the first element, the faith-vision of a founder, that offers us a key to understand the “charism of a founder.”(62)
The ‘faith-vision” of a founder is “the way in which he perceived the totality of the Christian mystery, his own personal grasp of revelation.”(63) The founder’s “faith-vision” is influenced by a variety of factors-history, culture, the theology of his day, etc.-but it is primarily influenced by his experience of the Christian mystery. We might describe “faith-vision” then, as a kind of personal synthesis of revelation or the prism through which a believer gazes upon the love of God.
An illustration of a “faith-vision” will clarify the concept. St. Paul in Romans 11:13 calls himself an “apostle to the Gentiles.” His “faith-vision” was the universality of salvation and in his proclamation of the Gospel he released the universal message of Jesus from Jewish limits and thus laid the foundation for Gentile Christianity. St. Paul’s “faith-vision” colors his whole understanding of the Christian mystery.
The “faith-vision” of a founder is important because it provides the “substructure” which gives coherence to his “charism.” Mary Milligan notes that “the two realities are related but not identical; they are interdependent but not co-extensive.”(64) The relationship between the two might best be described in an agrarian image: the “faith-vision” is like the rich soil into which the “charism,” the seed, is planted and in which it grows and comes to maturity.
Finally, it is important to clarify the meaning of two terms, spirituality and spirit, which are often used in discussing the “charism of a founder.” Spirituality is essentially a particular way not only of conceiving the Christian life (“faith-vision”) but also of realizing it as well.(65) To use our earlier example: St. Paul’s “faith-vision” was that Jesus had died for Jews and Gentiles alike. His spirituality combines this understanding of the Christian mystery and the coherent living out of this understanding, which for St. Paul meant preaching the Gospel message of salvation to Gentiles.
Spirit, on the other hand, (understood in the context of our discussion) refers to “one’s interior, fundamental attitude in regard to God, to the Church, and to other members of the congregation.”(66) A founder’s “spirit” is transmitted through his entire person, that is, his writings, personality, “faith-vision,” etc. This “spirit” gradually becomes a collective reality, the spirit of the congregation, as others join the community, and it provides a basis for unity and continuity in the history of the community. The spirit of a congregation defies description or definition; it is the sine qua non that can be understood only through experience.
Mary Milligan points out that “spirit and spirituality are essentially interrelated.”(67) Our earlier agrarian image is once again useful in illustrating this interrelation. Spirituality is the soil in which the seed of Spirit is planted, grows, and matures. The soil content-whether it is rocky, sandy, fertile, etc.-will have a tremendous impact on how tall, strong, and fruitful the plant will be. In the same way a founder’s spirituality is formative of his “spirit”; it will, to a great extent, determine the shape his “spirit” will take. On the other hand, when the plant dies it will slowly decay and in doing so will replenish and enrich the soil that had nurtured it. This cyclical process is also apparent in the way “spirit” influences “spirituality.” As members of a community live out their “interior, fundamental attitude toward God, the Church and to other members of the congregation” there is a “deepening of the ideal itself and a constant care regarding the forms which protect and foster it.”(68)
What is meant by the term “charism of a founder?” We could broadly define it by restating our earlier definition: “free gifts of the Holy Spirit given to an individual, intended for the building up of the Body of Christ.” We can further clarify the definition by noting that these “free gifts” are particular by nature and are given for a specific purpose in the Church. The validation of the “charism,” therefore, lies in its recognition within the Christian community, the universal, and local Church. It is the founder’s “faith vision” that provides the “humus” in which the “free gifts” are conceived, nourished, and grow to maturity and consequently will provide the basis for authentic understanding of the “charism of a founder.”
(1) E.T. n. 6.
(2) E.T. n. 11
(3) Dictionnaire de la Bible, Supplement, vol. 1, s.v. “Charismes,” by A. Lemonnyer: 1233.
(4) B.N. Wambacq, “Le mot charisme,” Nouvelle revue theologique 97 (1975): 346.
(5) For a detailed analysis see Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, vol. 9, s.v., by Hans Conzelman, translated and edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley: 402-6.
(6) Michael Griffiths, Grace-Gifts (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1978): 15. See also Jean-Pierre Jossua, “Theology, Charism of the Spirit,” Experience of the Spirit, ed. by Peter Huizing and William Basset (New York: The Seabury Press, 1974): 12-4.
(7) Cf. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, op. cit., p. 403.
(8) John Koenig, Charismata: God’s Gifts for God’s People (Philadelphia: The Westminister Press, 1978): 54.
(9) Cf. Dictionary of Biblical Theology, s.v. “Charism,” ed. by Xavier Leon-Dufour: 69.
(10) Cf. Ps. 104 and Is. 11:1-3.
(11) Cf. Mattias Neuman, “The Gifts of the Holy Spirit: A Creativity Perspective,” Review for Religious 32 (1973): 299.
(12) I Kings 22:28.
(13) Ez. 3:12.
(14) I Kings 18:12.
(15) E.g. Jeremiah.
(16) E.g. Amos
(17) Cf. Koenig, Charismata: God’s Gifts. . . , op. cit., pp. 45-6.
(18) Dictionary of the New Testament, s.v. “Charism,” by Xavier Leon-Dufour : 131.
(19) Ibid. The texts cited are Rom. 1:11; 5:15f; 6:23; 11:29; 2 Cor. 1:11.
(20) Ibid. The texts cited are Rom. 12:6; I Cor. 1:7; 7:7; I Tim. 4:14; 2 Tim. 1:6; I Cor. 12:4, 9, 28, 30f.; Eph. 4:11
(21) Cf. I Cor. 12:11; 14:1, 12. See also Michel Lemonnier, “Riflessioni per una teologia dei carismi,” Rivista vita spiritualita (Gennaio-Febbraio 1972) : 12.
(22) Dictionnaire de la Bible, Supplement, op. cit., p. 1235.
(23) Cf. I Cor. 12:12-30.
(24) Cf. I Cor. 12:27-30.
(25) Cf. I Cor. 14:1-5.
(26) Cf. I Cor. 12:4, 9, 28, 30f.
(27) Cf. I Cor. 13. St. Paul places charity at the basis of all charisms. Actually “charity” and “love” describe the same reality. The Latin caritas is derived from carus meaning “dear, of great price” and is translated in the Greek agape which in this thirteenth chapter of I Corinthians has God or one’s neighbor as its object. See also Hans Kung, “The Charismatic Structure of the Church.” The Church and Ecumenism, vol. 4 (New York : Paulist Press, 1965): 60.
(28) Cf. James F. O’Brien, “St. Paul on Charisms,” Cross and Crown 22 (December 1970): 451-3; J. M. R. Tillard, There Are Charisms and Charisms (Bruxelles: Lumen Vitae, 1977): 43-5; Sacramentum Mundi, vol. 1, s.v. “Charism,” by Estavao Bettencourt: 283; Dictionnaire de la Bible, Supplement, op. cit., pp. 1234-6; Lemonnier, “Riflessioni per una teologia. . .,” op. cit., pp. 51-6; Griffin, Grace-Gifts, op. cit., p. 15.
(29) I Cor. 12:7.
(30) Cf. I Cor. 7:7; Lemonnier, “Riflessioni per una teologia…,” op. cit., pp. 20-1.
(31) Arnold Bittlinger, Gifts and Graces: A Commentary on I Cor. 12-14 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1967): 15-6.
(32) Cf. I Cor. 12:4.
(33) Koenig, Charismata: God’s Gifts. . . , op. cit. pp. 82-3. We must keep in mind, however, that the building up of the Body of Christ cannot be separated from the building up (the sanctification) of the individual. St. Paul says that, “He who speaks in tongues edifies himself.” (I Cor. 14:4) See also Rene Laurentin, “Charisms: Terminological Precison,” Charisms in the Church, ed. by Christian Duquoc and Casiano Samanes (New York: The Seabury Press, 1978): 9.
(34) Laurentin, “Charisms: Terminological Precision,” op. cit., p. 7; Kung, “The Charismatic Structure…,” op. cit., pp. 50-8.
(35) Kung, “The Charismatic Structure…,” op. cit., p. 48.
(36) Cf. O’Brien, “St. Paul on Charisms,” op. cit., pp. 455-7.
(37) Gabriel Murphy, “Charisms and Church Renewal” (Dissertatio ad Lauream, Pontificiam Universitatem S. Thomae, 1965) : 23; Laurentin, “Charisms: Terminological Precision,” op. cit. pp. 8, 9; Encyclopedia of Theology, s.v. “Charism,” by Karl Rahner: 185
(38) A Patristic Greek Lexicon, s.v., ed, by G. W. Lampe: 1518-9.
(39) In Job, c. xli, vs. 13; PL 76, col. 721.
(40) Mattias Neuman, “The Gifts of the Holy Spirit…, “op. cit., pp. 300-1
(41) Catholicisme, vol. 2, s.v. “Charisme,” by J. V.-M. Pollet : 957.
(42) Newman, “The Gifts of the Holy Spirit…,” op. cit. p. 301.
(43) Laurentin, “Charism: Terminological Precision,” op. cit., p. 5.
(44) Ibid. For a discussion of the tension between the charismatic structure of the Church and its institutional dimension see Enrique Dussel, “The Differentiation of Charism,” Charisms in the Church, ed. by Christain DuQuoc and Casiano Samanes (New York: The Seabury Press, 1978): 38-55.
(45) For a survey of development of the theology of “charism” from the middle ages to modern times see Murphy, “Charisms and Church Renewal,” op. cit. pp. 28-35.
(46) H. Kung, Y. Congar and D. O’Hanlon, Council Speeches of Vatican II (New York: Paulist Press, 1964): 29.
(47) M.C. chap. 2.
(48) Cf. Sacramentum Mundi, “Charism,” op. cit., p. 284.
(49) Cf. L.G. n. 12; trans. by Flannery: 363.
(51) L.G. n. 33; trans. by Flannery: 390-1.
(52) L.G. n. 7; trans. by Flannery: 354-6.
(53) L.G. n. 8; trans. by Flannery: 356-8.
(54) Cf. Yves Congar, Credo nello Spirito Santo: Lo Spirito Santo nell’ “Economia” (Brescia: Editrice Queriniana, 1981) : 191. Those in positions of authority have the serious responsibility “to test” (cf. I Thess. 5:21) charisms to insure that they are indeed the work of the Holy Spirit: “Those who have charge over the Church should judge the genuineness and proper use of these gifts, through their office not indeed to extinguish the Spirit, but to test all things and hold fast to what is good.” (L.G. n. 12; trans. by Flannery: 364).
(55) “Since the Council of Trent the documents of the Church and the statements of the popes have from time to time affirmed that individual founders acted under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. Paul III and Julius III both stated that St. Ignatius of Loyola and his companions gathered ‘inspired by the Holy Spirit.’ In 1791 Pius VI was the first modern pope to affirm, as general principle, that the formation of an order is always due to a divine inspiration. Puis IX recalled that those who founded orders acted under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, a statement repeated by Pius XI in his letter ‘Unigenitus’.” Juan Manuel Lonzano, “founder and Commnity: Inspiration and Charism,” Review for Religious 37 (March 1978): 219, 223.
(56) L.G. n. 43-7; trans. by Flannery: 402-7.
(57) P. C.; trans. by Flannery: 611-706.
(58) P.C. n. 1; trans. by Flannery: 611-2.
(59) P.C. n. 8; trans. by Flannery: 615-6.
(60) Michael Lemonnier, “Riflessioni per una teologia…,” op. cit., p. 21.
(61) Mary Milligan, “That They May Have Life: A Study of the Spirit-Charism of Father Jean Gailhac, Founder” (Dissertatione ad Doctoratum, Pontificiae Universitatis Gregorianae, 1975): 27.
(62) Ibid., pp. 30-1
(64) Ibid., p. 32.
(65) Mary Milligan, “That They May Have Life” A Study of the Spirit-Charism of Father Jean Gailhac, Founder” (Dissertatione Ad Doctoratum, Pontificiae Universitatis Gregorianae, 1975): 34.
(66) Ibid, p. 33
(67) Ibid, p. 35.
(68) Mary Milligan, “That They May Have Life” A Study of the Spirit-Charism of Father Jean Gailhac, Founder” (Dissertatione Ad Doctoratum, Pontificiae Universitatis Gregorianae, 1975): 27.